Notes on the Perfect Man

By • on May 5, 2009

Notes on the Perfect Man

Muhammad is revered throughout the Islamic world as al-insan al-kamil, the perfect man

So Says Allah





Qur’an 33.21 YUSUFALI: Ye have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for any one whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day, and who engages much in the Praise of Allah.PICKTHAL: Verily in the messenger of Allah ye have a good example for him who looketh unto Allah and the Last Day, and remembereth Allah much.SHAKIR: Certainly you have in the Messenger of Allah an excellent exemplar for him who hopes in Allah and the latter day and remembers Allah much. A good example of conduct
Qur’an 68:4 YUSUFALI: And thou (standest) on an exalted standard of character.PICKTHAL: And lo! thou art of a tremendous nature.SHAKIR: And most surely you conform (yourself) to sublime morality.

‘And indeed, you are of a great moral character.’ (Saheeh International -Jeddah)

Follow Mohammed
Qur’an 8.20 O you who believe: obey Allah and his messenger and turn not away from him Obey Mohammed
Qur’an 59:7 “And whatever the Messenger gives you, take it, and whatever he forbids you, leave it. And fear Allah: truly Allah is severe in punishment. “  
  …Obey Allah and his messenger…Qur’an:  002.285; 003.032; 003.132; 004.013; 004.059; 004.069; 005.092; 008.001; 008.020; 008.024; 008.046; 009.071; 024.047; 024.051; 024.052; 024.054; 033.033; 047.033; 049.007; 049.014; 058.013; 064.012 At least 22 versus in the Qur’an contain this formula;  there are many other versus with the same meaning but different formula e.g. 59:7


Episodes from the Life of Mohammed



Secular Source

Islamic Source



  • 1.
  Bukhari (005.58.236) Volume 5, Book 58, Number 236:    Narrated Hisham’s father:Khadija died three years before the Prophet departed to Medina. He stayed there for two years or so and then he married ‘Aisha when she was a girl of six years of age, and he consumed (sic) that marriage when she was nine years old. Marriage to Aisha
  • 2.
ROP?  43 Bukhari (007.062.64) Volume 7, Book 62, Number 64:     Narrated ‘Aisha:that the Prophet married her when she was six years old and he consummated his marriage when she was nine years old, and then she remained with him for nine years (i.e., till his death). Marriage to Aisha
  • 3.
  Bukhari (007.62.64) Volume 7, Book 62, Number 67:    Narrated Abu Huraira:The Prophet said, “A matron should not be given in marriage except after consulting her; and a virgin should not be given in marriage except after her permission.” The people asked, “O Allah’s Apostle! How can we know her permission?” He said, “Her silence (indicates her permission).” Marriage and ‘silent’ Consent
  • 4.
  Bukhari (007.62.68) Volume 7, Book 62, Number 68:    Narrated ‘Aisha:I said, “O Allah’s Apostle! A virgin feels shy.” He said, “Her consent is (expressed by) her silence.” Marriage and Consent
  • 5.
  Bukhari (007.62.88) Volume 7, Book 62, Number 88:    Narrated ‘Ursa:The Prophet wrote the (marriage contract) with ‘Aisha while she was six years old and consummated his marriage with her while she was nine years old and she remained with him for nine years (i.e. till his death). Marriage to Aisha
  • 6.
  Bukhari (005.58.236) Volume 5, Book 58, Number 236:    Narrated Hisham’s father:Khadija died three years before the Prophet departed to Medina. He stayed there for two years or so and then he married ‘Aisha when she was a girl of six years of age, and he consumed (sic) that marriage when she was nine years old. Marriage to Aisha
  • 7.
  Bukhari (007.062.142) Volume 7, Book 62, Number 142:    Narrated Anas bin Malik:The Prophet used to pass by (have sexual relation with) all his wives in one night, and at that time he had nine wives.  
  • 8.
TTAM 160 Ibn Ishaq 651 You have rights over your wives and they have rights over you.  You have the right that they should not defile your bed and that they should not behave with open unseemliness.  If they, God allows you to put them in separate rooms and to beat them, but not with severity.  If they refrain from these things they have the right to their food and clothing with kindness.  Lay injunctions on women kindly, for they are prisoners with you having no control of their persons.  You have taken them only as trust from God, and you have the enjoyment of their persons by the words of God… See also Qur’an 4:34 and 2.223
  • 9.
ROP? 43; TTAM 148 Bukhari (008.082.794) Volume 8, Book 82, Number 794:    Narrated Anas:Some people from the tribe of ‘Ukl came to the Prophet and embraced Islam. The climate of Medina did not suit them, so the Prophet ordered them to go to the (herd of milch) camels of charity and to drink, their milk and urine (as a medicine). They did so, and after they had recovered from their ailment (became healthy) they turned renegades (reverted from Islam) and killed the shepherd of the camels and took the camels away. The Prophet sent (some people) in their pursuit and so they were (caught and) brought, and the Prophets ordered that their hands and legs should be cut off and that their eyes should be branded with heated pieces of iron, and that their cut hands and legs should not be cauterized, till they die. [797] (Abu Qilaba said, “Those were the people who committed theft and murder and reverted to disbelief after being believers (Muslims), and fought against Allah and His Apostle”). Capital punishment for murder is one thing but torture is another.  And clearly the punishment was also for apostasy.
  • 10.
ROP?  43 Bukhari (009.084.057); also Bukhari (004.052.260) Volume 9, Book 84, Number 57:    Narrated ‘Ikrima:Some Zanadiqa (atheists) were brought to ‘Ali and he burnt them. The news of this event, reached Ibn ‘Abbas who said, “If I had been in his place, I would not have burnt them, as Allah’s Apostle forbade it, saying, ‘Do not punish anybody with Allah’s punishment (fire).’ I would have killed them according to the statement of Allah’s Apostle, ‘Whoever changes his Islamic religion, then kill him.'” Kill apostates
  • 11.
  Bukhari (009.083.017) Volume 9, Book 83, Number 17:    Narrated ‘Abdullah:    Allah’s Apostle said, “The blood of a Muslim who confesses that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that I am His Apostle, cannot be shed except in three cases: In Qisas for murder, a married person who commits illegal sexual intercourse and the one who reverts from Islam (apostate) and leaves the Muslims.” Kill apostates
  • 12.
  Abu-Dawud (002.0494) Book 2, Number 0494:Narrated As-Saburah: The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: Command a boy to pray when he reaches the age of seven years. When he becomes ten years old, then beat him for prayer. Compulsion in religion
  • 13.
TTAM 106 Ib Ishaq 308 ‘All these men were captured or killed during the battle of Badr.  One Quraysh leader named…’Uqba, pleaded for his life: But who will look after my children. O Mohammed?  ‘Hell,’ Mohammed declared, and ordered ‘Uqba killed.’ No Mercy
  • 14.
TTAM 112 Tabari; and Ibn Ishaq 363 After the battle of Badr, Mohammed ‘received’ the revelation of Qur’an 8:58: ‘If thou fearest treachery from any group, throw back (their covenant) to them, (so as to be) on equal terms, for Allah loveth not the treacherous.’  With this revelation Mohammed declared: ‘I fear the Banu Qaynuqa.’ – a Jewish tribe with who he had a truce.  So he moved against them. Treaties are of little value
  • 15.
TTAM 112 Tabari vol. 7, 86 Mohammed’s forces laid siege to the Jewish tribe of Qaynuqa until they offered him unconditional surrender.  But the Quaynuqa had made alliances among the Muslims, and now some of them came forward to plead their case before Mohammed, who wanted to have all the men in the tribe put to death… (But at this time, his influence was not yet great enough to carry out this planned carnage.  So he accepted that they turn over all their property to the Muslims and leave Medina immediately. ) Desire to Kill the men prisoners (700)
  • 16.
ROP? 44; TTAM 157 Bukhari (001.002.25) Volume 1, Book 2, Number 25:    Narrated Abu Huraira:Allah’s Apostle was asked, “What is the best deed?” He replied, “To believe in Allah and His Apostle (Muhammad). The questioner then asked, “What is the next (in goodness)? He replied, “To participate in Jihad (religious fighting) in Allah’s Cause…” Beliefs are not deeds.  Jihad, therefore, is the best deed.
  • 17.
ROP? 51; TTAM 115 Sira 367 Then he (Kab bin al-Ashraf) composed amatory verses of an insulting nature about the Muslim women.  The Apostle said…’Who will rid me of Ibnul-Ashraf?’  Muhammad bin Maslama, brother of the Bani Addu’l-Ashhal, said, ‘I will deal with him for you, O Apostle of God, I will kill him.’  ‘Do so if you can.’… ‘All that is incumbent on you is that you should try… ‘ He (Muhammad bin Maslama) said, ‘O Apostle of God, we shall have to tell lies.’  He (Mohammed, the founder of Islam) answered, ‘Say what you like, for you are free in the matter.’ Permission to kill critics and to tell lies. 
  • 18.
TTAM 115; ROP 51 Bukhari (004.052.027) Volume 4, Book 52, Number 270:    Narrated Jabir bin ‘Abdullah:The Prophet said, “Who is ready to kill Ka’b bin Al-Ashraf who has really hurt Allah and His Apostle?” Muhammad bin Maslama said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Do you like me to kill him?” He replied in the affirmative. So, Muhammad bin Maslama went to him (i.e. Ka’b) and … went on talking to him … till he got the chance to kill him.  (When Mohammed heard the news, he cried out, ‘Allahu akbar!’ and praised Allah  for the death of his enemy.  (Ibn Sa’d vol. II. 37)) Criticism ‘really hurts’ Allah and Mohammed
  • 19.
ROP? 52 TTAM 116 Sira 369 (Shortly after the killing of Ka’b bin Al-Ashraf) ‘The Apostle said, ‘kill any Jew that falls into your power.’ Murder and anti-Semitism
  • 20.
TTAM 121 Tabari vol. 7.158 After the battle of Uhud: some members of the Jewish tribe of Nadir, tried to kill Mohammed by dropping a stone on him.  Rather than searching for the guilty men, Mohammed said: ‘Leave my country and do not live with me.  You have intended treachery.’  Collective guilt
  • 21.
ROP? 54 Bukhari (004.052.50) Volume 4, Book 52, Number 50: Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet said, “A single endeavor (of fighting) in Allah’s Cause in the forenoon or in the afternoon is better than the world and whatever is in it.” Jihad
  • 22.
ROP? 56; TTAM 129 Sira 461 ‘The apostle besieged them [Banu Qurayza] for 25 nights until they were sore pressed and God cast terror into their hearts…’ Terror: Allah took responsibility, or shared it, with Mohammed
  • 23.
TTAM 130 Bukhari (005.058.148); Ibn Ishaq, 461 Bukhari (005.058.147)Bukhari (008.074.278) After the surrender, Mohammed allowed Sa’d bin Mu’adh to pass judgement on the Banu Qurayza.  Sa’d said: ‘I give the judgment that their warriors should be killed and their children and women should be taken as captives.’  Mohammed and Allah approved of this judgment: ‘The Prophet of Islam was pleased.  “O Sa’d! You have judged amongst them with (or similar to) the judgment of the King (Allah).”  He [Mohammed] confirmed Sa’d’s judgement as that of Allah himself: “You have decided in confirmation to the judgment of Allah above the seven heavens.” Later when Sa’d bin Mu’adh died, Mohammed said “The Throne (of Allah) shook at the death of Sad bin Muadh.” Allah and Mohammed agreed with the massacre that was to follow.
  • 24.
ROP? 56; TTAM 130 Ibn Ishaq Sira 463-64 Ibn Ishaq describes the killing of the Banu Qurayza men as follows:Then they [the Jews] surrendered, and the apostle confined them in Medina in the quarter of d. al-Harith, a woman of B. al-Najjar. Then the apostle went out to the market of Medina (which is still its market today) and dug trenches in it. Then he sent for them and struck off their heads in those trenches as they were brought out to him in batches. Among them was the enemy of Allah, Huyayy b. Akhtab and Ka’b b. Asad their chief. There were 600 or 700 in all, though some put the figure as high as 800 or 900. As they were being taken out in batches to the apostle they asked Ka’b what he thought would be done with them. He replied, ‘Will you never understand? Don’t you see that the summoner never stops and those who are taken away do not return? By Allah it is death!’ This went on until the apostle made an end of them. Huyayy was brought out wearing a flowered robe in which he had made holes about the size of the finger-tips in every part so that it should not be taken from him as spoil, with his hands bound to his neck by a rope. When he saw the apostle he said, ‘By God, I do not blame myself for opposing you, but he who forsakes God will be forsaken.’ Then he went to the men and said, ‘God’s command is right. A book and a decree, and massacre have been written against the Sons of Israel.’ Then he sat down and his head was struck off.[30]


Mass murder (600 – 900)
  • 25.
TTAM 130 Sunan Abu-Dawud (038.4390) Book 38, Number 4390:    Narrated Atiyyah al-Qurazi:    I was among the captives of Banu Qurayzah. They (the Companions) examined us, and those who had begun to grow hair (pubes) were killed, and those who had not were not killed. I was among those who had not grown hair.  
  • 26.
ROP? 58 Bukhari (004.052.265); and (005.059.372 Volume 4, Book 52, Number 265:    Narrated Al-Bara bin Azib:Allah’s Apostle sent a group of the Ansar to Abu Rafi. Abdullah bin Atik entered his house at night and killed him while he was sleeping.  (Abu Rafi was accused by Mohammed of sowing treachery among the Medinan tribes.) Assassination
  • 27.
TTAM 127 Bukhari (004.052.268) Volume 4, Book 52, Number 268:    Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Apostle called,: “War is deceit”.  (During the battle of the Trench, Mohammed said to a recent convert, turned spy: ‘You are only one man among us, so go and awake distrust among the enemy to draw them off us if you can, for war is deceit.’ (Ibn Ishaq, 458)) ‘War is deceit’
  • 28.
ROP? 60; TTAM 140 Sira 515 Following the Battle of Khaibar, Mohammed and his co-religionists were looking for booty.  Mohammed said to Kinana, a Jewish leader of the Khaibar,: ‘Do you know that if we find you have it I shall kill you?’  ‘Yes.’  The Apostle gave orders that the ruin was to be excavated and some of the treasure was found. When he asked him about the rest he refused to produce it, the Apostle gave orders to al-Zubayr bin al-Awwam, ‘Torture him until you extract what he has,’ so he kindled a fire with flint and steel on his chest until he was nearly dead.  Then the Apostle delivered him to Muhammad bin Maslama and he struck off his head, … Theft, torture and execution
  • 29.
ROP? 59; TTAM 142 Bukhari (001.008.0367) Mohammed: Dihya came and said, ‘O Allah’s Prophet! Give me a slave girl from the captives.’  The Prophet said, ‘Go and take any slave girl.’ He took Safiya bint Huyai. [wife of Kinan, above] Slavery
  • 30.
ROP 60; TTAM 142 Bukhari (001.008.0367) A man came to the Prophet and said, ‘O Allah’s Apostles! You gave Safiya bint Huyai to Dihya and she is the chief mistress of the tribes of Quraiza and An-Nadir and she befits none but you.’ So the Prophet said, ‘Bring him along with her.’ So Dihya came with her and when the Prophet saw her, he said to Dihya, ‘Take any slave girl other than her from the captives.’ Anas added: The Prophet then manumitted her and married her.” Rape (or is ‘silence consent?’ pt 4 above)
  • 31.
ROP? 60 Sira 511 The women of Khaibar were distributed among the Muslims Slavery and Sex
  • 32.
ROP? 61; TTAM 146 Sira 516; After the ‘battle’ of Khaibar the nearby people of Faduk also wanted to sue for ‘peace.’  Mohammed agreed to permit them to continue farming their land provided they hand over half of the produce to the Muslims – with the important condition: ‘If we wish to expel you we will expel you.’  Mohammed said the same to the people of Khaibar. Bukhari (039.039.531) Dhimnna; ‘protection’ tax; ‘made to feel subdued’ Qur’an 9.29
  • 33.
ROP? 62 Sira 550 ‘The Apostle had instructed his commanders when they entered Mecca only to fight those who resisted them, except a small number who were to be killed even if they were found beneath the curtains of the Kaba..’ No refuge from the displeasure of Mohammed
  • 34.
ROP? 62 Bukhari (003.029.072); Sira 550 Volume 3, Book 29, Number 72:    Narrated Anas bin Malik:    Allah’s Apostle entered Mecca in the year of its Conquest wearing an Arabian helmet on his head and when the Prophet took it off, a person came and said, “Ibn Khatal is holding the covering of the Ka’ba (taking refuge in the Ka’ba).” The Prophet said, “Kill him.” Assassination
  • 35.
ROP? 63 Bukhari (004.052.177) Volume 4, Book 52, Number 177:    Narrated Abu Huraira:Allah’s Apostle said, “The Hour will not be established until you fight with the Jews, and the stone behind which a Jew will be hiding will say. “O Muslim! There is a Jew hiding behind me, so kill him.” Murderous Anti-Semitism
  • 36.
ROP? 63 Bukhari (001.002.024) Volume 1, Book 2, Number 24:    Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:Allah’s Apostle said: “I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform a that, then they save their lives and property from me except for Islamic laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allah.” Offensive warfare; Dhimnna and ‘protection’ tax
  • 37.
  Muslim (001:0031:) Book 001, Number 0031:It is reported on the authority of Abu Huraira that he heard the Messenger of Allah say: I have been commanded to fight against people, till they testify to the fact that there is no god but Allah, and believe in me (that) I am the messenger (from the Lord) and in all that I have brought. And when they do it, their blood and riches are guaranteed protection on my behalf except where it is justified by law, and their affairs rest with Allah. War without end until there is submission
  • 38.
  Muslim (001:0030) Book 001, Number 0030: It is reported on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah said: I have been commanded to fight against people so long as they do not declare that there is no god but Allah, and he who professed it was guaranteed the protection of his property and life on my behalf except for the right affairs rest with Allah. War without end until there is submission
  • 39.
TTAM 118 Ibn Ishaq, 386 At the battle of Uhud: When Abu Sufyan, the Quraysh leader, taunted the Muslims, Mohammed [re]confirmed [Qur’an 3:128] that the Quraysh were indeed all evildoers.  He told his lieutenant Umar to respond: ‘God is most high and most glorious.  We are not equal.  Our dead are in paradise, your dead in hell.’ Unequal in life and death
  • 40.
TTAM 119 Ibn Ishaq, 387 After the battle of Uhud: Mohammed found the body of his uncle terribly mutilated by a woman whose father, brother, uncle, and eldest son had been killed at the battle of badr.  Mohammed’s response: ‘If God gives me victory over Quraysh in the future, I will mutilate 30 of their men.’ Revenge 30-fold
  • 41.
TTAM 102 Bukhari (6:60:79); and Bukhari (009.093.633) Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Umar:The Jews brought to the Prophet a man and a woman from among them who had committed illegal sexual intercourse. The Prophet said to them, “How do you usually punish the one amongst you who has committed illegal sexual intercourse?” They replied, “We blacken their faces with coal and beat them,” He said, “Don’t you find the order of Ar-Rajm (i.e. stoning to death) in the Torah?” They replied, “We do not find anything in it.” ‘Abdullah bin Salam (after hearing this conversation) said to them. “You have told a lie! Bring here the Torah and recite it if you are truthful.” (So the Jews brought the Torah). And the religious teacher who was teaching it to them, put his hand over the Verse of Ar-Rajm and started reading what was written above and below the place hidden with his hand, but he did not read the Verse of Ar-Rajm. ‘Abdullah bin Salam removed his (i.e. the teacher’s) hand from the Verse of Ar-Rajm and said, “What is this?” So when the Jews saw that Verse, they said, “This is the Verse of Ar-Rajm.” So the Prophet ordered the two adulterers to be stoned to death, and they were stoned to death near the place where biers used to be placed near the Mosque. I saw her companion (i.e. the adulterer) bowing over her so as to protect her from the stones. Stoning to death
  • 42.
  Muslim (17:4206) He (the narrator) said: There came to him (the Holy Prophet) a woman from Ghamid and said: Allah’s Messenger, I have committed adultery, so purify me. He (the Holy Prophet) turned her away. On the following day she said: Allah’s Messenger, Why do you turn me away? Perhaps, you turn me away as you turned away Ma’iz. By Allah, I have become pregnant. He said: Well, if you insist upon it, then go away until you give birth to (the child). When she was delivered she came with the child (wrapped) in a rag and said: Here is the child whom I have given birth to. He said: Go away and suckle him until you wean him. When she had weaned him, she came to him (the Holy Prophet) with the child who was holding a piece of bread in his hand. She said: Allah’s Apostle, here is he as I have weaned him and he eats food. He (the Holy Prophet) entrusted the child to one of the Muslims and then pronounced punishment. And she was put in a ditch up to her chest and he commanded people and they stoned her. Khalid b Walid came forward with a stone which he flung at her head and there spurted blood on the face of Khalid and so he abused her. Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) heard his (Khalid’s) curse that he had hu[r]ried upon her. Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: Khalid, be gentle. By Him in Whose Hand is my life, she has made such a repentance that even if a wrongful tax-collector were to repent, he would have been forgiven. Then giving command regarding her, he prayed over her and she was buried. Stoning to death but, nb., Mohammed says here: ‘be gentle’
  • 43.
TTAM 121 Muslim (019.4326) Bukhari (003.039.519)  The Prophet of Islam ordered his Muslims to march out against the tribe (the Banu Nadir) and lay siege to them.  During the siege he ordered that the date palm of the Banu Nadir be burnt.  ;Book 019, Number 4326:    ‘Abdullah b. Umar reported that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) burnt the date-palms of Banu Nadir.’ Ib Ishaq, p 437: The Nadir, surprised, asked him: Mohammed, you have prohibited wanton destruction and blamed those guilty of it.  Why they are you cutting down and burning our palm-trees?’

Qur’an  059.005

Whatsoever palm-trees ye cut down or left standing on their roots, it was by Allah’s leave, in order that He might confound the evil-livers.

Wanton Destruction which is supposedly against Islamic principles of war; Allah endorses this destruction (Qur’an  059.005), and takes responsibility for it.  
  • 44.
TTAM 147 Ibn Ishaq 544-547 The leader of the Quraysh, Abu Sufyan, now wanted to become a Muslim after the surrender of Mecca.  ‘But when Mohammed said, “Woe to you Abu Sufyan, isn’t time that you recognise that I am God’s Apostle?,” Abu Sufyan replied, “As to that I still have some doubt.”  At that, one of Mohammed’s lieutenants, Abbas, responded to Abu Sufyan: “Submit and testify that there is no God but Allah and that Mohammed is the apostle of God before you lose your head.”  Abu Sufyan complied. Forced conversion
  • 45.
TTAM 152 Ibn Ishaq 595-596 Mohammed: If justice is not to be found with me then where will you find it? The source of Justice
  • 46.
TTAM 153 Muslim (019:4294) Book 019, Number 4294:It has been reported from Sulaiman b. Buraid through his father that when the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) appointed anyone as leader of an army or detachment he would especially exhort him to fear Allah and to be good to the Muslims who were with him. He would say: Fight in the name of Allah and in the way of Allah. Fight against those who disbelieve in Allah. Make a holy war, do not embezzle the spoils; do not break your pledge; and do not mutilate (the dead) bodies; do not kill the children. When you meet your enemies who are polytheists, invite them to three courses of action. If they respond to any one of these, you also accept it and withhold yourself from doing them any harm. Invite them to (accept) Islam; if they respond to you, accept it from them and desist from fighting against them. … If they refuse to accept Islam, demand from them the Jizya [tax on unbelievers]. If they agree to pay, accept it from them and hold off your hands. If they refuse to pay the tax, seek Allah’s help and fight them. Offensive warfare and the Jizya tax for ‘people of the book’
  • 47.
TTAM 159 Ibn Ishaq 643 Mohammed reminded the rulers that the lives of the Jews and the Christians depended on their payment of this tax (the jezya):  ‘He who pays that to God’s Apostle has the guarantee of God and His Apostle, and he who withholds it is the enemy of God and His apostle.’  Pay up or die
  • 48.
TTAM 159 Muslim (019.4366) ‘Book 019, Number 4366: On his death bed Mohammed said:(It has been narrated by ‘Umar b. al-Khattib that he heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say:) I will expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula and will not leave any but Muslim.’ Intolerance
  • 49.
TTAM 161-2 Qur’an 9:1-6 For Jews and Christians the choices were conversion, subjugation or war; for people not ‘of the book’ the choice was conversion or war.  They had four months to decide or leave Arabia.  ‘Thus when the Islamic jihad armies swept into Hindu India, they were much more brutal than they were in Europe – for Europe’s Christians had the option of living as dhimmis, while the pagan Indians did not…’  Robert Spencer Expulsion of the pagans; conversion or war
  • 50.
TTAM 162 Ibn Ishq 675 Abu’Afak was reputed to be over one hundred years old, and had dared to criticise in verse Mohammed’s killing of another of his opponents.  Mohammed asked his men, ‘Who will deal with this rascal for me?’  He found a ready volunteer in a young Muslim named Salim bin ‘Umayr, who dispatched the old poet as he lay sleeping. Assassination of a critic
  • 51.
TTAM 163 Ibn Ishq 676 Another poet, ‘Asma bint Marwan wrote against this assassination.  Mohammed then looked for a volunteer to kill her: ‘Who will rid me of Marwan’s daughter?’  A Muslim named ‘Umayr bin ‘Adiy al-Khatmi took the job, and killed her along with her unborn child that very night.  But after the deed was done ‘Umayr began to worry that perhaps hehad committed a grave sin.  Mohammed reassured him: ‘You have helped God and His apostle, O ‘Umayr!’  But would he (‘Umayr) incur punishment?  Mohammed said: ‘Two goats won’t butt their heads about her.’ Assassination of a critic
  • 52.
  Bukhari (004.053.392) Volume 4, Book 53, Number 392:    Narrated Abu Huraira: While we were in the Mosque, the Prophet came out and said, “Let us go to the Jews” We went out till we reached Bait-ul-Midras. He said to them, “If you embrace Islam, you will be safe. You should know that the earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle, and I want to expel you from this land. So, if anyone amongst you owns some property, he is permitted to sell it, otherwise you should know that the Earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle.” Anti-Semitism
  • 53.
TTAM 152 Bukhari (004.052.191) Volume 4, Book 52, Number 191: “In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful (This letter is) from Muhammad, the slave of Allah, and His Apostle, to Heraculius, the Ruler of the Byzantine. Peace be upon the followers of guidance. Now then, I invite you to Islam (i.e. surrender to Allah), embrace Islam and you will be safe; embrace Islam and Allah will bestow on you a double reward. But if you reject this invitation of Islam, you shall be responsible for misguiding the peasants (i.e. your nation). The clear implication here is that if one does not embrace Islam then they will not be safe.
  • 54.
  Muslim (019.4380) The letter ran as follows:” In the name of Allah, Most Gracious and Most Merciful. From Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, to Hiraql, the Emperor of the Romans. Peace be upon him who follows the guidance. After this, I extend to you the invitation to accept Islam. Embrace Islam and you will be safe. Accept Islam, God will give you double the reward. And if you turn away, upon you will be the sin of your subjects.” Again, do as I say or else…
  • 55.
  Muslim (020.4645) Book 020, Number 4645: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Sa’id Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said (to him): Abu Sa’id, whoever cheerfully accepts Allah as his Lord, Islam as his religion and Muhammad as his Apostle is necessarily entitled to enter Paradise. He (Abu Sa’id) wondered at it and said: Messenger of Allah, repeat it for me. He (the Messenger of Allah) did that and said: There is another act which elevates the position of a man in Paradise to a grade one hundred (higher), and the elevation between one grade and the other is equal to the height of the heaven from the earth. He (Abu Sa’id) said: What is that act? He replied: Jihad in the way of Allah! Jihad in the way of Allah! Jihad is the greatest endeavour and Jihadists receive the greatest reward



Conclusion and Sources


While Christianity focuses on the Word (John 1:1), Islam focuses on words; and these words are accessible to understanding.  The words of the Qur’an are the closest equivalent to the Word in Christianity.  Knowing and understanding the words of Islam is the sum total of Islamic belief; and knowing Mohammed (his words, actions and decisions) is crucial to knowing Islam.


The above list of examples of this ‘perfect man’, inspired by his Allah (or is it the other way around?) could go on for many more pages.  I only highlight the few that strike me as significant.  I have also been guided by two books.  They are:


‘The Truth about Muhammad: Founder of the World’s Most Intolerant Religion’; By Robert Spencer; pub 2006 by Regnery

‘Religion of Peace?–Islam’s War against the world’; By Gregory M Davis; Pub 2006, World Ahead Publishing, inc.

In the second column ‘TTAM’ refers to ‘The Truth about Muhammad’; and ‘ROP?’ refers to ‘Religion of Peace?’   Each reference is followed by the page number.

See these two books for the full context (historical and Qur’anic) of the above quotes and incidents.  ‘In Islamic tradition, Muhammad is al-insan al-kamil, the perfect man, and uswa hasana, an excellent model of conduct (Qur’an 33:21),’ Robert Spencer.


A word about the Islamic sources: “The Prophet himself had said in his last sermon: ‘I leave behind me two things, the Qur’an and my example, the Sunnah, and if you follow these you will never go astray.'” Akbar S. Ahmed (ROP? 29) The Sunnah, or example of Mohammed, is comprised of Hadith (reports) and the Sira or biography.


The above reports from Bukhari and Muslim are universally recognised as reliable and authoritative.  Each source is referenced and can be confirmed at


Since I do not have a copy of the Sira by Ibn Ishaq (Mohammed’s first biographer) or Ibn Sa’d (an early compiler of biographical traditions about Mohammed), nor Tabari (Muslim historian); nor have I found them on the Internet, I have reproduced the above stories (where those references apply) from the two books, ‘TTAM’ and ‘ROP?.’


The words and example of Mohammed are, for devote Muslims, guidance for all people, for all time.  If they were just history, then there would be no problem with Islam.  But, alas, they have inspired many of his followers down through history and continue to do so today.


Kinana: iiarop[at]googlemail[dot]com

11 September 2007